While the Thirty Years War was raging in Europe, King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden realized he needed a stronger naval presence if he were to retain his dominance in the Baltic. He ordered five heavy-duty warships to be built.
The Vasa was to be a mighty vessel – with two gun decks, her broadside would be capable of hurling 267 kg (588 lb) of shot, making her arguably the most powerful warship of the time. But the project became fraught with problems: the King was pressing for quick delivery yet he kept interfering with the plans, endlessly fiddling with measurements and demanding constant modifications; a shortage of money mid project led to more delays; and to cap it all the head shipwright suddenly dropped dead.
At long last the Vasa was ready for her maiden voyage. It was a calm day with a light breeze – perfect sailing weather. The gun ports were opened ready to fire a salute. After sailing only 1,130 m (3,700 ft) the sail suddenly billowed and the Vasa heeled violently to port. She immediately righted herself, but at the next gust she leant even further and disaster struck – water poured into the open gun ports. The inrush made her heel so far that she collapsed on her side. The pride of the Swedish fleet met her ignominious end a mere 120 m (390 ft) from land in full view of a crowd of thousands.
Gustavus Adolphus was incandescent with rage. The ship’s captain was immediately arrested while the shipbuilders and the crew blamed each other. It soon became clear that it was the actual construction at fault. There was nobody to blame: the original contractor was dead and the King himself had personally overseen every single measurement. Everyone else had just obeyed orders.
When: August 10 1628
Where: Baltic Sea
Death toll: Between 30 and 50 crew drowned despite the fact that the Vasa was so near the shore.
You should know: The Vasa was eventually salvaged on April 24 1961. When it was measured, calculations proved that it was so unstable it would have heeled over even in a light breeze of four knots. It was top-heavy, weighed down by the second gun-deck and the massive sculptures on the prow with which warships of the period were customarily decorated.